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Ovulatory tests allow the most fertile days to be identified in advance by tracing estradiol and luteinizing hormone (LH), whose peak triggers ovulation, in the urine. The test (or stick) of ovulation  possible to identify in advance the tracking ovulation urine the two hormones that characterize it, namely ‘ estradiol  and luteinizing hormone ( LH ).


There are different types of ovulation texts on the market today, and they can be divided into three different categories: there are simple “sticks”, digital ovulation tests and monitors to analyze the sticks keeping track, cycle after cycle, of the trend hormone. Among the most widespread ovulation tests is Persona , which combines the  ovulation sticks with a mini computer that can follow a woman’s fertility cycle: like pregnancy tests, the sticks are made up of hood, absorbent pad and window control. and can also be used without the monitor. In addition to being used to control the hormonal trend for those seeking geritol and pregnancy, the Persona ovulation test is also used as a contraceptive method , to avoid unprotected sex during the most fertile days. On the Persona mini-computer you can enter all the data related to your menstrual cycle , to identify the days most at risk of pregnancy and those that are less fertile. Remember that the contraceptive method based on fertile days does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases.


The most fertile days are those near ovulation, which, in a woman with a very regular cycle of 28 days, occurs around the 14th day . Ovulation tests can be performed from 5 days before, even every day to check the progress of hormones. The urine test can be performed at any time (preferably in the morning ), holding the swab directly under the jet of pee for a few seconds or immersing it in a container in which we have collected urine. After covering the swab with the cap, place the stick on a flat surface and after a few seconds read the result in the reading window.


To read the results of the person ovulation test it is good to remember that the intensity of the two lines that correspond to the two hormones (estradiol and LH) is also an indicator of the state of ovulation. In particular, if the estradiol line (the left one) is very light while the LH hormone line (right) is stronger it means that ovulation is close, on the contrary if the estradiol line is very marked l ovulation is still far away.


The identification of the peak does not guarantee 100% that there was ovulation: another indicator to take into account is the basal temperature method , that is the “resting” method , since near the ovulation the body temperature slightly increases . The Persona sticks can also be used as a pregnancy test starting from the 13th post-ovulation day, since the production of the LH hormone during a pregnancy continues, even if they are less accurate than the actual pregnancy tests and their result it must however be confirmed.


The cost of ovulation sticks, which can also be purchased on Amazon, is around 40 euros for a 32-stick pack , which equals 4 menstrual cycles. The 16 stick pack , which is valid for two cycles, costs around 30 euros.


During the menstrual cycle , which lasts on average 28 days, the woman’s body is subjected to various changes, due in part to the production of hormones and the different phases of ovulation. Although a cycle can be regular (and menstruation appears punctual), it is difficult to establish the exact time of ovulation, which occurs around the middle of the cycle. There are some methods to measure ovulation: in addition to the sticks  currently on the market, it can also be identified through some typical symptoms, or even by measuring the basal temperature . This measurement is important if you are looking for a pregnancy (it is often also used as a natural contraceptive method but has a large margin of error) and can also be used to identify possible fertility problems in women, such as an adulatory cycle.


One of the methods used to identify the moment in which ovulation is occurring is that of measuring the basal temperature. The basal temperature method is a natural method and serves to identify ovulation which, contrary to popular belief, does not occur for all women at the same point in the menstrual cycle and, indeed, can vary from month to month even in a woman rather “regular”. Regardless of when the ovulation actually takes place, in the immediately preceding days there is first a lowering and therefore an increase in the woman’s body temperature. To measure this change and therefore identify the approach of ovulation, it is necessary to monitor the temperature for several days and make sure that it is always measured under the same conditions: it is defined as “basal” because it must be measured “at rest”, preferably as soon as the woman wakes up , before getting out of bed and before doing any activity, every day at the same time and in the same way.


To measure the basal temperature you need to have a thermometer . You can use a specific one that you buy at the pharmacy, and it is a thermometer that has the most spaced notches and is therefore easier to read, or you can use a normal mercury thermometer or even a digital thermometer. Measurement can be started from the first day of menstruation or immediately after the end of menstruation. The data must be reported on a table , with the date and time of the measurement and the precise temperature. The basal temperature (tb) should be measured in the morning after having slept at least three hours in a row, preferably always at the same time or in any case at most with a difference of half an hour more or less than the usual measurement time. If you measure the tb in a different time than usual, you will need to report the change in time on the graph.

You can measure the basal temperature in two different ways:

for rectal route is the best and most reliable by vaginal route it is fairly reliable and certainly more convenient, but can be distorted by any vaginal infections The oral measurement  is not reliable , because at night it can happen to sleep with an open mouth and thus “distort” the temperature.


When a pregnancy is established, the basal temperature remains slightly higher than normal: instead of lowering in conjunction with the day scheduled for the arrival of menstruation, it tends not to fall, but to remain constant or to rise further: in this case it may be one of the early symptoms of fertilization and therefore of pregnancy.


As the women who keep the basal temperature measured for a long time realize it, its course is oscillatory : in a first phase (called follicular) the temperature is kept low on average, then it lowers for only one day and then rises and exceeds the average of the first part of the cycle. The lowering and the subsequent rise correspond to ovulation which is confirmed after at least three days of rising temperature. The increase may not even occur immediately after ovulation but it can also take 2-3 days. The temperature then remains constantly high until a few days before the next menstruation, when it goes down again. In some cases the temperature drops on the day of menstruation or even the following day. If the  cycle is ovulatory, the graph will have a biphasic pattern, ie the temperature is lower in the follicular phase and then rises about 3 tenths of a degree in the lutein phase.


In the case where the cycle is anovulatory , the temperature remains constant throughout the cycle, or it has a Russian mountain trend and it is not possible to identify in the graph a biphasic pattern typical of the ovulatory cycle.


In the event of pregnancy the temperature remains on average even on the day of the presumed arrival of menstruation and in some cases it could undergo a further increase resulting in the so-called triphasic trend from pregnancy.


Stress would diminish the possibility of conceiving, according to a study by the Boston University School of Public Health which examined more than 4,700 women and 1,200 men. The relationship between stress and fertility  has been discussed for some time. A new study, conducted by a team from the Boston University School of Public Health and appeared in the American Journal of Epidemiology,  would seem to confirm the thesis that stress negatively affects the possibility of conceiving a child. The relationship between stress and fertility has already been investigated in several studies, which analyzed whether and how much it could affect, for example, the cognitive development of the fetus during pregnancy. Not only that: a previous study , which focused on medically assisted procreation, highlighted, on the contrary , that particularly stressful conditions would not affect the success of assisted reproduction therapies. The case of non-assisted procreation would therefore be different: the researchers started from the data of the Pregnancy Study Online (Presto) that between 2013 and 2018 analyzed women and men from the United States and Canada in search of a pregnancy for at least 12 months, to establish the incidence of the stress factor. Specifically, 4,769 women and 1,272 men between the ages of 21 and 45 were examined without previous fertility problems.

It was found that women with Pss scores (Perceived Stress Scale, self-perceived stress level) of at least 25 had 13% less chance of getting pregnant than women with Pss scores below 10. To have higher scores on the of stress “were then women  under 35 years old . Although the relationship between stress and fertility is considered random in most of the subjects analyzed by the study, the researchers identified, among the causes that lead to the lowering of the probability of conceiving, the decrease in sexual relations and the increase in the irregularity of the menstrual cycle . But it is not just female stress that influences conception. In fact, the study showed a correlation between a man’s Pss score and a couple’s fertility, although to a lesser extent than female stress: the data showed that couples had a 25% less chance of conceiving when the male Pss score was less than 10 and female over 20.